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INNOVATIONS? YES! BUT NOT NOW – article for Plast Echo


What would You tell if You didn’t need to be correct?

Well I got this opportunity from Plastech and it is priceless.

In an article for the most recent edition for PLASTECHO magazine I wrote about the disruption at the level of middle management that occurs in many organisations.
The result of this #disruption is late adoption of innovative technologies.
This adoption is so delayed that those organisations can be called lateadopters.
Obviously a late implementation of an #innovation is merely bringing a business to trade stanards which gives no competitive advantage.

It has an influence on the business, it has an influence on the economy of the region. Maybye that’s why Poland is chasing and chasing the west.


SZE at Plastpol 2023


Refrigeration is an inseparable part of the production of polymer elements.
That is why we will be at the Plastpol 2023 fair and we warmly invite you to our stand.

Date: May 23-26, 2023

Where: Targi Kielce ul. Zakładowa 1, 25-672 Kielce

Stand: D-88

We will be with the offer of CO2 chillers, which we have already written about on our website.

Exhibition hours at the stand:

11:15-11:30 Refrigeration for plastics processing

12:00-12:15 Energy-saving chillers


See you!

SZE at the International Fair of Plastics Processing



It’s good when the cooling works – we can provide that and it doesn’t use a lot of energy unnecessarily a lot of energy – we’re really good at that. I don’t think that’s modest.

Refrigeration is important to us. We belive…we know that a well designed and executed cooling system in the plastic processing industry can make a big difference.

From over 30% to 40% energy savings – this is what we offer you and we will talk about it at the International Fair of Plastics Processing.

All information can be found in the link below.

Strona główna

What do we know, what do we not know, what to expect?


Electric cars, photovoltaics, heat pumps – these are topics that, in the broadly understood utility of consciousness, operate on a daily basis. Everyone has an opinion on them, including breakfast TV presenters and politicians. On two topics I will not stand out, but on heat pumps that I have the right and competence. Fortunately, one principle of physics that requires cutting short the polemic.

Heat pumps (PC) are actually a very good source of inexpensive heat and are mainly used in the context of underfloor heating, most often in small houses. However, it is a solution with great potential on a much larger scale – on the scale of district heating networks. We are talking about PC with a capacity of 1 or 2, or even 15 MW. What technology should be used is not entirely determined by personal preferences.

The list of issues defining technology is extremely short, because it contains two questions.

Question 1: What are the characteristics of the lower and upper heat sources?

For relatively low upstream temperatures (say below 75°C) we can consider all three of the most popular technologies: F-gas, R744 and NH3. For higher temperatures, we are talking rather only about R744 and NH3, with the note that CO2 – to be profitable – will require low return temperatures, below 25 ° C.

Question 2: What is the required power?

F-gases are great at low to medium power. In my career, I encountered one reasonable, small (5kW), to medium-sized – around 2 or 3 MW. Devices that will actually support urban networks will usually be only ammonia.

PCs offered by MAN break out with a big bang from the above. The manufacturer provides extraordinary advanced CO2 devices that can operate at high return temperatures, can give heat at temperatures up to 150°C and exist in powers up to 80MW! you don’t believe? Type in the search engine.

Maurycy Szwajkajzer

for Chłodnictwo & Klimatyzacja 

“Sail safely!” – a column for CH&K Magazine


A sailing ship needs wind to move towards its destination. The stronger it is, the faster the boat moves forward. However, when the wind is too strong, it jerks the sails and raises waves that can sink an entire ship. The situation of companies in our industry is similar. He laughs himself at how banal the analogy is! But true! And I mean the phenomenon of the collapse of companies as a result of their rapid development, at a time when the market is good – as it is now. It’s hard not to notice that we have a lot of work to do, that our competences are in demand on the market. Or maybe even that demand (eventually) exceeds supply. This is the time when many companies already relate or will soon achieve unobserved sales success. The speed and amount of money flowing through your accounts will increase – perhaps even several times. An ocean of opportunities, a sea of ​​opportunities! Many boats sink in such waters.

Below, I have listed some good practices that will help you not find yourself with your keel towards the sky.

  1. Take care of fluency. It is because of its lack that the companies in full swing break down. Avoid investing for your money. The amounts of the advance payments should cover at least the value of the purchase of materials. Because if you can afford to finance one or two projects at the same time, then five or ten – certainly not.
  2.  Quote and design carefully. While inflation is rampant and inquiries are much more frequent, it is very easy to get confused in a quick quote. If a customer orders an offer with errors, you will both lose. The point is, after all, to have a lot of experience – but good, not bad!
  3. Be modest. After each hill there is a hole – I wrote about it in the previous issue. Be restrained in making unnecessary expenses, but also in rejecting customers who have been with you for years – because others are temporarily more profitable. Maybe you remember that recently, at the beginning of the COVID pandemic, I wrote exactly the same in the context of a customer who should be loyal to the supplier?
  4. Be careful. Your company with a turnover of 5 million and 50 million are two completely different institutions. You may not be able to drive either of them.
    Some of the above-described cautions come from the knowledge gained in college, but some from personal experience – unfortunately. I keep my fingers crossed for you, your companies and our industry.

Good luck!

Maurycy Szwajkajzer

CEO SZE on Executive Summit 2022



“At Executive Summit 2022, I will represent Thermodynamics, the ecological and economic potential of modern refrigeration, which is part of our daily lives to a much greater extent than many of us know about it.”

Maurycy Szwajkajzer comments

The Executive Summit conference brings together the most influential personalities whose attitude has a real impact on the shape of Polish and international business. It’s hard not to say otherwise about Rafał Brzoska – the charismatic founder of InPost, Przemysław Gdański – CEO of BNP Paribas, Grzegorz Mazurek – Rector of ALK, Władysław Gdański – CEO of Arche, Maciej Panek – President of Panek Car Sharing and all other speakers.

Our presence is aimed at drawing the attention of the audience to the hot topic of refrigeration – we hope that you will also be among them.

More about the event that will take place on September 29 and 30 in the WSE building at

Winter is comming! – a column for Ch & K Magazine


Heat production panic – here it is, or should I wait until October to announce it? Regardless of the answer to this question, I know that many entrepreneurs in the manufacturing industries look towards winter at least with concern. In this column, I will try very briefly to mention the refrigeration technologies that can help you survive the winter.

Let’s start the telegraphic shortcut!

  • If anything in your plant is still heated by an electric heater, consider whether it will be cheaper to burn with money. Seriously! The electric heater is an archaic solution that can be successfully replaced with a heat pump. However, there is an enormous amount of technology behind the term heat pump. CO2 heat pumps can easily reach 95 ° C, but require a relatively low return temperature. These technologies already exist and are proven.
  • Energy Harvesting – I’ve had more factory and commercial facility audits behind me than I can remember, but I remember one feature that most of them have in common. The heat sources to be recovered are scattered over a very large area, and each of them has a relatively small power (e.g. 20 kW). This means that the heat recovery system will transport relatively small amounts of it from a wide variety of sources to one place. This requires a wide variety of heat recovery technologies (air compressors, refrigeration equipment, furnaces, boilers, collectors) and, in the center, an ingenious tank that will collect all that heat. These technologies already exist and are proven.
  • Heating systems – central heating, domestic hot water, central heating … their temperature will decrease. Times of central heating systems 90/60 are long gone and there will be no return to them. So if you have such a system in your plant, think about how long it is worth maintaining and when should you invest in upgrading to a lower performance system. The lower heat parameter allows the use of the above-described technologies. In my opinion, this is the perfect moment for such reconstructions. Relevant technologies already exist and are proven.
    Especially with regard to the last point, Dear Reader, do not let me say, “did I tell you?” In a few years’ time.

Maurycy Szwajkajzer

for the Chłodnictwo i Klimatyzacja magazine

Column for Ch & K Magazine: “Time for evaluation”


When I look back, I can see that most of the columns in our department have been devoted to new technologies – all new products that appear successively in our industry “menu”. So now it’s time for a flashback. R744 refrigeration does not exist today and some technical solutions, acceptable in the past, should not be used anymore, there are also some that should never have appeared in our “menu”.

The first to be forgotten is the cascade cooling systems (F-gas “up”, CO2 “down”). These systems are neither stable nor energy efficient – especially when made in accordance with the regulations, i.e. with glycol. Due to their complexity, they are also not particularly cheap.

Another item that you kindly want to remove from the “menu” are chillers without a parallel compressor. In the real weather conditions prevailing in Poland in recent years, the lack of a parallel compressor destroys the energy saving potential of the transcritical CO2 system. Meanwhile, the investment in an additional compressor is not a significant expense on the scale of the entire refrigeration system. Building an installation using this type of “economical” technology in 2022 is, in my opinion, something far irrational. The only situation where no parallel compressor can be considered at all is when a system is created with a cooling capacity of less than 50 kW.

Another point: Gas coolers and DT calculations above 3 K – here we should also change our approach. Increasing DT is a method to reduce the size and price of the device. So, at the end of a tender, it is difficult not to be tempted to lower your bid in this way. Especially when we are concerned that the competition will do just that. However, it is acting to the detriment of the customer, and during the warranty period – also on its own.

I should also add to this list: gas coolers without EC fans, gas coolers counted “wet”, too low pressure standards of some elements of the installation, heating the freezer floor with electricity.

Dear colleagues! Let’s make an agreement that we put these monuments of technology back in the museum and do not play with each other with such tricks. It will be good for the customer, for the market and for us.

Maurycy Szwajkajzer

for the Chłodnictwo i Klimatyzacja magazine

Column for Ch & K Magazine: Is a refrigeration compressor like a car engine?


It is often said that a refrigeration compressor works in a similar way to an internal combustion engine … just the opposite. So let’s compare how a refrigeration compressor resembles a typical car engine.

One of the basic parameters of an internal combustion engine is its displacement volume. So what is the volume of the compressors we use? The smallest transcritical Bitzer 2NSL-05K has a volumetric capacity of 1.33 m3 / h, which gives a displacement volume of only 0.02 liters. The largest currently commercially available compressor – the 6-cylinder Dorin has a displacement of 99.6 m3 / h and a displacement of 1.15 liters. So at the level of a small city car. I remember that this manufacturer sometimes referred to automotive inspiration. This compressor has a capacity of 100 hp.

However, we also have sports engines – high-speed and more working, trucks – low-rev. The difference is, among other things, the proportion of the width of the piston to its stroke. The smaller the stroke, the higher the RPM, but the lower the torque. From my observations, most modern transcritical CO2 compressors have a stroke nearly twice as small as the diameter.

Therefore, if you want to treat the compressor and the internal combustion engine analogously, you should say that the compressor is something like an engine in a sports motorcycle: somewhere between a scooter and a sports 600.

I wonder if this is what the producers are inspired by?

This type of comparison could be made further and further, but now I invite the reader to the completely substantive part of our R744 section.


Maurycy Szwajkajzer

for the Chłodnictwo i Klimatyzacja magazine

Column for Ch & K magazine: CO2 air conditioning


Refrigeration and air conditioning only for people from outside these industries are the same. In fact, the refrigerant circuit is identical, but the intended use, technical considerations, market size, power levels and business habits are as far apart as welding is from playing the piano.

Refrigeration works all year round. Air conditioning not anymore. This minor fact influences the profitability of energy saving solutions in a fundamental way. This is especially important for R744 systems, which operate in a subcritical – very, very economical and supercritical – moderately economical, above this value below an outside temperature of about 25 ° C. For obvious reasons, air conditioning requires coolness at high outdoor temperatures – those that require or are close to supercritical work. So what technically has to happen for CO2 chillers to be more widely used in air conditioning?

I present my opinion:

  1. Air conditioning in facilities such as shopping malls, office buildings, serving services, etc. must work all or a significant part of the year. Therefore, for the calculation of profitability, it is not allowed to take only time, with an external temperature above 20 ° C. A lot of computational programs still make this mistake.
  2. The use of hybrid adiabatic towers as gascoolers should be seriously considered. This ensures that the reference for the condensation temperature will be a wet thermometer, not a dry one.
  3. Ejectors that recover expansion energy and flooded systems not requiring superheat in the evaporators should be used.

This, of course, is only part of the puzzle required to popularize the R744 in air conditioning. Meanwhile, after such a short introduction, I invite you to read the notes in our section as well as the information and articles contained in this issue. It is worth knowing more.


Maurycy Szwajkajzer

for the Chłodnictwo & Klimatyzacja magazine